Drug Addition as a Social Problem of Pakistan

Addiction to drugs among young men and women is an acute social problem faced by
most of the countries worldwide. Illegal trafficking of narcotics is on the increase in spite
of vigilance on the part of governments. Heroin, cocaine, hashish, marijuana and other
health damaging drugs are easily available today. This sordid commerce has resulted

in young men and women easily obtaining and using drugs. They can be seen sprawled
almost everywhere.

At first youngsters take drugs in small doses just for thrill gradually develop a
compulsion to have it at intervals. Thus drug-taking becomes a habit from which there is
no easy escape. Once addicted to drugs there are very few and chances of escaping. Drug
addition includes the use of heroine, charas, bhang, post and other medicinal drugs.

The drug addicts may be treated as social patients and rehabilitated in society as its
normal members. They must be given due status in society in various social situations so
that they may be absorbed in society.

Causes:

1. The young men and women who are frustrated because of alienation from the
family, a sense of loneliness and unemployment etc lead them to this culture.

2. A person finding little role in his daily life easily falls in drug addiction. It means
abuse of leisure can mare one drug addicts. A person in the company of addicts
gets into this bad habit.

3. Failure is aims of life also drags one into use of drugs.

4.Mental depression is another major factor in the causation of drug addiction.

Solution:

1. The first and foremost thing to do is for every nation is to see that the illicit
traffic of narcotics is completely stopped. Every country should have laws or
special police force for narcotics, this law should be made tougher and have strict
punishments.

2. Massive education program for youth should be started. Youngsters should be told
about the dangers of taking drugs

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Leadership

Leadership is the quality by which a person imaginatively directs, guides and influences the work of others in choosing and attaining specified goals. Leadership can best be called the personality of the very highest ability-whether in ruling, thinking, imagining, innovation, warring, or religious influencing. Leadership is a quality which cannot be acquired by any person from the other but it can be acquired by self-determination of a person. Leadership depends on the structure of the personality which includes experience, skill, responsibility, intelligence, power of organizing people and social interaction.
Leader is person who influences the thoughts and behaviors of others; a leader is one who establishes the direction for others to willingly follow. One person can serve as a leader or several persons might share leadership. A person may be appointed as leader or may be elected by people within his circle. Leaders play vital role in standardizing performance. Leaders set vision, strategies, goals, and values in order to guide for desired action and behavior. Leaders can influence other to perform beyond the expectations.

The Major Attributes of Leadership

The following are the major attributes of leadership:

1. Infinite Courage
In fact, no follower will like to be dominated by a leader who lacks self-confidence, courage and wisdom. No intelligent follower will be dominated by such a leader for very long.

2. Self Control
The person who controls himself, rules others. The person who can’t control himself can never control others. In fact, self-control sets a mighty example for one’s followers, which the more intelligent will emulate.

3. Mental Strength
A leader may not be physically strong but he needs to be mentally strong and firm in decisions. A person who can satisfy the basic psychological needs of his followers can also be an effective leader.

4. Sense of Justice
Without a sense off fairness and justice, no leader can command and retain the respect of his followers.

5. Decision Making
A person, who wavers in his decision, shows that he is not sure of himself, cannot lead others successfully.

6. Planning
The successful leader must plan his work and work his plan. A leader who moves by guesswork, without practical, definite plans, is comparable to a ship without a wheel. Sooner of later he will land on the rocks.

7. Doing More
One of the penalties of leadership is the necessity of willingness, upon the part of the leader, to do more than he requires of his followers.

8. Pleasing Personality
Leadership calls for respect. A person without a good and pleasing personality will not be respected by his followers for very long.

9. Sympathy
The word sympathy can be best defined as sharing the feelings of others (especially feelings of sorrow or anguish). The successful leader must be in sympathy with his followers. Moreover, he must understand them and their problems.

10. Responsibility
The person who wants to be a leader must develop the quality of taking responsibility. With responsibility comes power. A leader is assumed to be responsible for the mistakes and the shortcomings of his followers. If he tries to shift the responsibility, he will not remain the leader.

11. Cooperation
Without good co-operation and coordination no organized plan could be executed. Thus a successful leader must understand and apply the principles of cooperative efforts and be able to induce his followers to do the same. Leadership calls for power, and power calls for cooperation.

12. Intelligence and Alertness
The most important quality which a leader should possess is intelligence and alertness. A leader has to use his/her brain every time and also has to remain alert with eyes and ears open otherwise he/she could easily be carried by any fraud or enemy.

13. Optimistic Approach
A leader should also be an optimist having a positive attitude. He should not think negatively or plan something showing negative attitude. It is necessary that leader should be innovative, action-oriented and optimist.

14. Faithful
A good leader must be faithful to his group members and activities. This in turn, will result in an atmosphere of assurance among the followers. Having faith in self abilities and the world around him/her the leader gains inspiration and also inspires others in the process.

Political System of Pakistan

The official name of Pakistan is Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the political system of Pakistan is parliamentary type. The President of Pakistan is the largely ceremonial head of state, the Prime Minister is head of government, and there is a multiparty system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is largely vested in the Parliament.
There are three major branches of the Government, they are:
1. Executive Branch
2. Legislative Branch
3. Judicial Branch

1. Executive branch

The president of Pakistan, in keeping with the constitutional provision that the state religion is Islam, must be a Muslim. Elected for a five-year term by an Electoral College consisting of members of the Senate and National Assembly and members of the provincial assemblies, the president is eligible for re-election. The president may resign or be impeached and may be removed from office due to incapacity or gross misconduct by a two-thirds vote of the members of the parliament. The president generally acts on the advice of the prime minister.
The prime minister is appointed by the members of the National Assembly through a vote. The prime minister is assisted by the Federal Cabinet, a council of ministers whose members are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister. The Federal Cabinet comprises the ministers, ministers of state, and advisers.

2. Legislative branch

The bicameral federal legislature consists of the Senate (upper house) and National Assembly (lower house). According to Article 50 of the Constitution, the National Assembly, the Senate and the President together make up a body known as the Majlis-i-Shoora (Parliament).

i. Senate
The Senate is a permanent legislative body with equal representation from each of the four provinces, elected by the members of their respective provincial assemblies. There are representatives from the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and from Islamabad Capital Territory. The chairman of the Senate, under the constitution, is next in line to act as president should the office become vacant and until such time as a new president can be formally elected. Both the Senate and the National Assembly can initiate and pass legislation except for finance bills. Only the National Assembly can approve the federal budget and all finance bills.

ii. National Assembly
Members of the National Assembly are elected by universal adult vote (after eighteen years of age). Seats are allocated to each of the four provinces, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, and Islamabad Capital Territory on the basis of population. National Assembly members serve for the parliamentary term, which is five years, unless they die or resign sooner, or unless the National Assembly is dissolved. Although the vast majority of the members are Muslim, about 5 percent of the seats are reserved for minorities, including Christians, Hindus, and Sikhs. Elections for minority seats are held on the basis of separate electorates at the same time as the polls for Muslim seats during the general elections. There are also 50+ special seats for women now, and women are selected (i.e. not directly elected in the general election but given representation according to how their parties performed in the general election) on these seat by their party head.

3. Judicial branch

The judiciary includes the Supreme Court, provincial high courts, District & sessions Courts, Civil and Magistrate courts exercising civil and criminal jurisdiction. Some federal and provincial courts and tribunals such as Services court, Income tax & excise court, Banking court and Boards of Revenue’s Tribunals are as well established in all provinces.

i. Supreme Court
The Supreme Court has decision making, appellate, and advisory jurisdiction. Supreme court provides the explanation of constitution and it can take Sou-Motto action for any violation of basic human rights of citizens. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is appointed by the president; the other Supreme Court judges are appointed by the president after consultation with the chief justice. The chief justice and judges of the Supreme Court may remain in office until age sixty-five.

ii. Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan
The Federal Shariat Court (FSC) of Pakistan is a court which has the power to examine and determine whether the laws of the country comply with Shari’a law. It consists of 8 Muslim judges appointed by the President of Pakistan after consulting the Chief Justice of this Court, from amongst the serving or retired judges of the Supreme Court or a High Court or from amongst persons possessing the qualifications of judges of a High Court. Of the 8 judges, 3 are required to be Ulema who are well versed in Islamic law. The judges hold office for a period of 3 years, which may eventually be extended by the President. Appeal against its decisions lie to the Shariat Appellate Bench of the Supreme Court, consisting of 3 Muslim judges of the Supreme Court and 2 Ulema, appointed by the President. If any part of the law is declared to be against Islamic law, the government is required to take necessary steps to amend such law appropriately.

Provincial Governments

Pakistan is subdivided into 4 provinces, 3 territories, and 1 capital territory. Each province has a Provincial Assembly, a directly elected legislature. Members are elected for five-year terms. Each Assembly elects a Chief Minister, who then selects the ministers of his or her cabinet.
• Punjab
• Sindh
• Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
• Balochistan
• Federally Administered Tribal Areas
• Azad Kashmir
• Gilgit-Baltistan has semi-provincial status with a directly elected Legislature, an elected Chief minister and federally appointed Governor for the region.
• Islamabad Capital Territory

Un-Employment as a Social Problem of Pakistan

Unemployment is enforced idleness of wage earner who is able and willing to work but
cannot find jobs. Un-employment is major economic and social problem of our country.
It is rural as well as urban. It is very serious and alarming and it has given birth to many
evils. In Pakistan 50 percent of our population is composed of women who are treated as
out of the work force.
Unemployment in Pakistan is increasing due to various causes, as discussed below:

Major Causes of Unemployment:

1. The higher growth rate of population is the major cause of unemployment
in Pakistan. The resources of the country are limited because population has
exceeded the optimum level.

2. Karachi is the biggest industrial base of Pakistan, but investors are reluctant to
invest there because of unrest and violence.

3. Our educational system is also responsible for increasing unemployment rate
among the educated youth. The attitude of our youth towards the choice of
a career is unrealistic and unproductive. Rapid mechanization and computer
technology also causing unemployment.

4. Lack of infrastructure and facilities in the field of energy, telecommunication and
transportation also prevent the industrialist from setting up new industries.

5. Lack of enough industries to employ ever increasing number of graduate in
Pakistan

6. The government is not involving in capital expenditures which create more jobs.

7. Opportunities are not enough and system of reference is so much indulged in our
society that if a company needs employees then workers of that company will
provide some resume to them of their relatives and friends so in this way many
people don’t get the opportunity to apply for those jobs.

Solution:

1. Economic Revival package should announce by the government for the revival of
industries sector, to stimulate production and investment.

2. Government should try to boost exports through broadening the tax base and
lowering tariffs.

3. Government should announce multiple packages for the development of
agriculture sector.

4. A number of fiscal and monetary measures should take attract industrialists and
particularly foreign investment.

5. Technical training facilities should be provided. In this way unemployed people
will get a chance to enhance their skills and become able to earn more reason able
income.

Illiteracy as a Social Problem of Pakistan

Education is a basic need of every society. Education is an essential part of a common man’s life. A better education system can enhance the social, scientific, and technological improvement of a country. The human resource development of a country depends upon the quality of education.
It is a factor that helps to improve living standards and enhances the quality of life; it
helps individuals run their personal lives, support their families and bring improvements
in their society. Each person’s education is an investment in their human capital which
allows them to contribute to their society in a productive way.
Unfortunately, in our own country, education and illiteracy has always been a grave
problem. Pakistan has one of the lowest literacy rates in the world.

The government has announced nine education policies in the last 60 years, with little
effect to resolve the issue. Instead, the current policy has only served to divide the
education system into segments. Without a unified education system, the authorities
cannot hope to foster a homogeneous society, nor provide individuals with equal
opportunities to meet their needs. Indeed, it is an established fact that proper education
is the bedrock of development in any country if it is provided according to the increasing
population needs.

Article 37-B of the Constitution of Pakistan states that it is government’s responsibility
to, “remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within
minimum possible period.”

Causes:

  1. Only 2% of GDP spent on Education whereas 60% is used for defense
  2. Un-availability of schools in remote and rural areas
  3. Occupation of schools by influential people in rural areas
  4. Conversion of Education as a Industry instead of Service
  5. Expensive education as compared to Europe, where education is free

Solutions:

  1. Budget for education should be increased
  2. Schools should be provided in every village of Pakistan
  3. Available schools should be utilized for education only
  4. Education should be free for all upto University
  5. Education should be compulsory for all upto 12th Standard
  6. Salaries of teachers should be increased so that people can join this profession easily

Poverty as a Social Problem of Pakistan

Poverty refers to the condition of not having the means to afford basic human needs
such as clean water, nutrition, health care, clothing and shelter. Poverty is the condition
of having fewer resources or less income than others within a society or country, or
compared to worldwide averages. Poverty is one of the major social problems which
Pakistan is facing. It is one of the most important and sensitive issue not only for Pakistan
but for the whole world. Poverty can cause other social problems like theft, bribe,
corruption, adultery, lawlessness, injustice etc.

Poverty is Pakistan’s biggest problem which today’s Pakistan facing, it is interconnected
with several elements which are having direct or indirect relationship with poverty.

Pakistan is world’s 6th largest country in terms of population and its population is mostly
rural. The rural population of Pakistan is totally depending on agriculture. As in most
cases where the canal system is lacking or on arid lands, the production of food is limited
as agriculture is said to be subsistence and meager to provide extra costs associated
to quality of life. The quality of life is the measure of development, the more the
development, the better the quality of life. A better life means, better education, health
and sanitation facilities and better future associated for young population. The rural areas
are relatively poor with respect to urban areas and about 33 percent of the population is
living below poverty line.

Causes:

1. Illiteracy
2. Over-Population
3. Political Instability

4. In-equal distribution of resources by the government.

5. Corruption in the Government departments

6. Old Agriculture Practices

Solutions:

1. Education should be right of the people not the privilege. Free education should be

provided upto university and institutes may be developed in rural areas.

2. Population increase should be controlled

3. Equality in the resources distribution should be done

4. Corruption should be eradicated from the society.

5. Modern reforms in the agriculture may be brought as Pakistan is an agricultural

country.

Punishment and Capital Punishment

Punishment is the authoritative imposition of something negative or unpleasant on a
person or animal in response to behavior deemed wrong by an individual or group. The
authority may be either a group or a single person, and punishment may be carried out
formally under a system of law or informally in other kinds of social settings such as
within a family.

Punishments are applied for various purposes, most generally, to encourage and enforce
proper behavior as defined by society or family. Punishments differ in the degree of
severity of their unpleasantness, and may include sanctions such as, deprivations of
privileges or liberty, fines, confinement and the death penalty.

Four fundamental justifications for punishment include: retribution, deterrence,
rehabilitation, and incapacitation such as isolation in order to prevent the wrongdoer’s
having contact with potential victims.

Capital Punishment

Capital punishment, the death penalty, or execution is the sentence of death upon a
person by judicial process as a punishment for an offence. Crimes that can result in a
death penalty are known as capital crimes or capital offences.

Capital punishment is often the subject of controversy. Opponents of the death penalty
argue that it has led to the execution of innocent people, that its main motive is not justice
but revenge and to save money, that life imprisonment is an effective and less expensive
substitute, that it discriminates against minorities and the poor, and that it violates the
criminal’s right to life. Supporters believe that the penalty is justified for murderers by
the principle of retribution, that life imprisonment is not an equally effective deterrent,
and that the death penalty affirms the right to life by punishing those who violate it in the
strictest form.

A Gallup International poll from 2000 said that “Worldwide support was expressed in
favor of the death penalty, with more than half (52%) indicating that they were in favour
of this form of punishment.” A number of other polls and studies have been done in
recent years with various results.