Generally, all the human beings in the world have same basic needs and they strive for the improvement of their life standard and better future of their offspring. The extents of the efforts depend upon the circumstances and opportunities one gets.
Here we will discuss the following social needs of the rural people:
- Affection/Respect/Love/Due Care
- Meeting basic needs
- Respect from society
- Freedom of thought and expression
- Right of living/Right of free movement
- Affection/Respect/Love/Due Care
Rural people live in combined family and furthermore all the near relatives of extended family live together in a group having separate homes but without any boundary wall called Vairho in Sindhi. In the Vairho people take care of each other and they help each other in case of any emergency or mishap. They all behave like one home. All the children play games and spent most of the time with each other. Women share everything that they cook with the other families living in the Vairho.
The rural people express love, affection and care for each other but at the same time they do not get all these things from their urban counterparts. Urban people do not show affection, love and due care to rural people.
2. Meeting basic needs
State is responsible for providing all the basic needs and utilities to every citizen of the country. In Pakistan and especially in Sindh, the focus of the Government is on the urban areas and rural areas are neglected. More than 70% of the population of Sindh lives in rural areas and keeping in view the importance of the agriculture, it is necessary to provide all the basic facilities to the rural people. Government should provide at least following facilities to the rural areas:
- Free Education upto 12th standard
- Medical facilities
- Clean drinking water
- Roads from main cities to rural areas for transportation of people and agricultural goods.
- Veterinary Hospital, as after agriculture, livestock is the most common occupation in rural areas.
- Provision of Electricity, Gas and telephone facilities.
- Security for the people and their properties.
3. Respect from Society
Every human being has self respect and he can not compromise it irrespective of the area where he lives. Rural people are very sincere and they respect everyone with their heart and soul; they also expect the same from others.
The people of the urban areas treat the rural people as second class citizens and they behave with them as if they are slaves. Urban people should realize that these are the efforts of the rural people that whole country including urban areas can get wheat, rice, vegetables, edible oil etc. Furthermore, rural people are the people having roots in this land since centuries. It is therefore necessary to treat every citizen of this country with love and care.
4. Freedom of Thought and expression
As per the International Human Rights Declaration, every person has the freedom of the thought and expression. This right is also accepted and mentioned in the Constitution of the Pakistan.
In the rural areas people do not realize the importance of the freedom of the thought and expression. The reason for this ignorance is the lack of education and less access to the information and media.
During the election process in the Pakistan, the rural voters are easily convinced by false promises and rural people become happy merely by a visit of the candidate to their village. Rural people are very straightforward and they easily forget all the wrong doings done to them.
Rural people are also afraid of the police and other forces in the country. The landlord uses his influence to manipulate the thoughts and expressions of peasants working under him. He uses their efforts for his own benefits.
The government should provide education and information to all the rural people and should maintain free and fair process of elections so that rural people can enjoy the freedom of the thought and expression.
5. Right of Living/ Right of free Movement
The constitution of Pakistan gives right to every citizen for right of living and right of free movement. Every citizen can purchase property and can have business in any part of the country.
In the rural areas of the Pakistan and especially in Sindh, people are not having their own homes and they live in the land given by their landlord. As the land is owned by the landlord, so the peasants are bound to obey all the orders of the landlord; whether right or wrong.
In rural areas, peasants also get loans from the landlords for their needs like illness of wife or children or marriage of daughter etc. As the income of peasants is very low so they can not payback the loans in due time and as a result landlord make them their ‘bonded labor’. Landlord forces the peasant to work along with family members to payback the loans; he also makes sure that peasants can not escape his ‘land’.
The government must take steps to ensure that every citizen is educated and everyone is free in making decisions regarding living and moving any where and everywhere.